Answered By: Hayley Hughes Last Updated: Feb 19, 2019 Views: 33090
How to reference using the Harvard system
The Harvard system is an established method of referencing and has advantages of flexibility, simplicity, clarity and ease of use both for author and reader. Each University has a slightly different way of using the Harvard style.
There are two parts to referencing using the Harvard System:
- In-text citations: this means acknowledging, within your text (assignment), the sources that you have used.
- The reference list: these are the details of the sources you have used. You list them in alphabetical order at the end of your work.
Citing in the text of your work
When you refer to another document you must acknowledge this within the text of your work, by citing the author's surname, the year of publication, and if using a direct quote from the author, the page number of where the quote came from. For example:
The study contends that "Korean companies have been traditionally characterised by long-term contracts and seniority-based management" (Chang, 2003: 77).
Despite the fact that "advanced computer technology, including Client/Server and distributed-object computing, and Internet/WEB technology, provides reliable and relevant mechanisms and tools for Product Data Management, large companies still deal with intricate and non flexible corporate information systems" (Zarli and Richaud, 1999: 2), therefore you will find that...
How to cite works with no obvious author
If possible, try to avoid citing works where the author is not obvious, as it's difficult to know if the source is credible and suitable to use. If you do need to cite a work which appears to have no author use the abbreviation Anon (for Anonymous).
A recent article stated that "..." (Anon, 2007:1).
However, if it is a reference to newspapers where no author is given the name of the paper can be used in place of author or Anon whichever seems most helpful. You will need to use the same style in the reference list so the name of the newspaper may be more helpful.
The Times stated that "..." (2007:15).
Web resources should be treated slightly differently. If you are citing a web page in the text, you should cite by the author if there is one clearly stated. If there is no author you should cite by the title. If neither author nor title is available use the URL.
The latest study revealed that "..." (http://www.........., 2006).
How to cite works with no publication date
If there is no obvious publication date in the work you want to reference, use the abbreviation n.d. to denote this.
Morris (n.d.) has argued that "..."
In your reference list, the publication would be listed as:
Morris, D. (n.d.) History of business. Business Quarterly, 2(1).
Full bibliographic citations (reference list)
Bibliographical references given at the end of your text should be sufficient to fully identify the publications referred to in the text. The first two parts of the reference, the authors surname and the date, provide the link to the citation you made in the text. A reference list listing all of the sources you have cited appears at the end of your work with the citations listed in alphabetical order of the author's surname.
A key rule to remember when compiling your reference list is that it should include references only for those texts/resources that you have in-text citations for and vice versa. So if you don't have an in-text citation for (Freud, 1900) for example, then this should not appear in your final reference list. If you have read Freud's book of 1900 then you can include a separate bibliography, that includes books or texts you referred to but did not cite/reference. Similarly, if you do cite (Freud, 1900) in your text, then it must appear as a full reference in your reference list. It is worth cross checking in both directions before you submit your work. Or get someone to go through your work spotting all the in text citations and reading them to you while you check their is a reference for it in your list (and vice versa).
Citing a source that is cited within another source is called secondary referencing.
It is advisable to read the original source whenever possible so that you understand the original source in context, rather than another author’s personal interpretation.
Important: If you cannot access the original source you can include the secondary reference as a citation in your work, as ‘cited in.’ In the reference list, use the source you read it in.
Examples of good and bad paraphrasing, and plagiarism
If you are describing someone's ideas or theories but not quoting the text directly you need to paraphrase the text so that it is in your own words. Here is an example of good and less good paraphrasing.
The original text:
Our study identifies a major obstacle for integrating mental health initiatives into global health programmes and health service delivery, which is a lack of consensus on a definition, and initiates a global, interdisciplinary and inclusive dialogue towards a consensus definition of mental health (Manwell et al., 2014: 265).
Here is well paraphrased text:
A study by Manwell, et al (2014) identified the fact that there is no agreed definition of mental health amongst health professionals as a key barrier to the successful integration of mental health programmes into international health programmes and their delivery. They recommend a dialogue amongst relevant professionals to agree a definition as a next step.
Here is a less well paraphrased text, which doesn't mention where the information came from:
A study showed that there is not agreed definition of mental health in the health field and this gets in the way of integrating mental health programmes into international programmes on health and in the way of their delivery. They suggested there should be a global discussion to get consensus on the definition of mental health.
So the example above is guilty of poor referencing (no in text citation to the actual authors, year of publication). It is also guilty of Poor Academic Quality (PAQ) because the wording has not been paraphrased enough in the author's own words. If this occurs a reasonable amount in a piece of work then the grader may limit the grade for that work to a maximum of 55/100.
Here is a third example:
I think that a major obstacle for integrating mental health initiatives into global health programmes and health service delivery, is a lack of consensus on a definition, and that there should be a global, interdisciplinary and inclusive dialogue towards a consensus definition of mental health.
This is plagiarism. The 'student' in this instance is presenting someone else's written word as their own and has not referenced it at all. This could lead to a high Turnitin score and to work being investigated by the Academic Integrity panel.
And a final example:
Marshal et al's (2014) study identifies a major obstacle for integrating mental health initiatives into global health programmes and health service delivery, which is a lack of consensus on a definition, and initiates a global, interdisciplinary and inclusive dialogue towards a consensus definition of mental health.
While in this example, the 'student' does include a reference, they haven't identified the text as being a direct quote. To do this correctly and avoid Poor Academic Practice they should have done the following:
Marshal et al's (2014) study 'identifies a major obstacle for integrating mental health initiatives into global health programmes and health service delivery, which is a lack of consensus on a definition, and initiates a global, interdisciplinary and inclusive dialogue towards a consensus definition of mental health' (1).
A study by Marshal et al 'identifies a major obstacle for integrating mental health initiatives into global health programmes and health service delivery, which is a lack of consensus on a definition, and initiates a global, interdisciplinary and inclusive dialogue towards a consensus definition of mental health' (Marshal et al., 2014: 1).
Note that you do need to include a page number in the in-text citation for direct quotes, but this is not necessary if you are paraphrasing.
For more in-depth information about referencing and using good academic practice, see this Skill Unit.
To see how our Writing Centre staff can help you improve your citing and referencing, go here.
Need more help? Contact us here.